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The Dutch former Colonies

Angola

26 August 1641.- 21/24 August 1648.,
São Paulo de Luanda (Luanda): Fort Aardenburgh (26 August 1641.- 21/24 August 1648.)           São Filipe de Benguela (Benguela): (Sept. 1641- 1648) to Portugal
Pinda or Mpinda (Sonyo):-at the mouth of the Congo River (1648) to Portugal
Ensandeira island:(at the mouth of the Kwanza river) Fort Mols (1645/6-1648) to Portugal
Malemba (Cabinda)

Fort Aardenburgh

In 1641, the Dutch seized Angola from the Portuguese. Dutch forces took control of Luanda and signed a treaty with Queen Nzinga of the Ndongo Kingdom. Nzinga unsuccessfully attacked the Portuguese at Massangano. She recruited new fighters and prepared to engage the Portuguese in battle again, but Salvador Correia de Sá led Portuguese forces from Brazil in expelling the Dutch and reasserting control in Angola. Nzinga's forces retreated to Matamba again.[1]

The Dutch ruled Angola from August 26, 1641 to August 21/24, 1648, occupying the coastal areas (under a governor of Dutch West India Company) of Angola. This attack was the culmination of a plan first proposed by Kongo's King Pedro II in 1622. After the Dutch fleet under Admiral Cornelis Jol took Luanda, the Portuguese withdrew to the Bengo River, but following the renewal of the Kongo-Dutch alliance, Bengo was attacked and subsequently Portuguese forces withdrew to Massangano. The Dutch were not interested in conquering Angola, much to the chagrin of Kongo's king Garcia II and Njinga who had both pressed them to assist in driving the Portuguese from the colony. However, Dutch authorities came to realize that they could not monopolize the slave trade from Angola just by holding Luanda and a few nearby places, and moreover, the Portuguese sent several relief expeditions to Massangano from Brazil. Consequently in 1647, the agreed to reinforce Njinga's army following her defeat by Portuguese forces in 1646. At the Battle of Kombi Dutch and Njinga's armies crushed a Portuguese army and in its aftermath laid siege to Ambaca, Massangano and Muxima.

 

Fort Aardenburgh

Fort Aardenburgh

Fort Aardenburgh, Loanda

View-of-Loanda

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