In 1641, the Dutch seized Angola from the Portuguese. Dutch forces took
control of Luanda and signed a treaty with Queen Nzinga of the Ndongo
Kingdom. Nzinga unsuccessfully attacked the Portuguese at Massangano.
She recruited new fighters and prepared to engage the Portuguese in
battle again, but Salvador Correia de Sá led Portuguese forces from
Brazil in expelling the Dutch and reasserting control in Angola.
Nzinga's forces retreated to Matamba again.
The Dutch ruled Angola from August 26, 1641 to August 21/24, 1648,
occupying the coastal areas (under a governor of Dutch West India
Company) of Angola. This attack was the culmination of a plan first
proposed by Kongo's King Pedro II in 1622. After the Dutch fleet under
Admiral Cornelis Jol took Luanda, the Portuguese withdrew to the Bengo
River, but following the renewal of the Kongo-Dutch alliance, Bengo was
attacked and subsequently Portuguese forces withdrew to Massangano. The
Dutch were not interested in conquering Angola, much to the chagrin of
Kongo's king Garcia II and Njinga who had both pressed them to assist in
driving the Portuguese from the colony. However, Dutch authorities came
to realize that they could not monopolize the slave trade from Angola
just by holding Luanda and a few nearby places, and moreover, the
Portuguese sent several relief expeditions to Massangano from Brazil.
Consequently in 1647, the agreed to reinforce Njinga's army following
her defeat by Portuguese forces in 1646. At the Battle of Kombi Dutch
and Njinga's armies crushed a Portuguese army and in its aftermath laid
siege to Ambaca, Massangano and Muxima.