The Dutch former Colonies
Forts in Nieuw Nederland
A fantastic site about the forts and their remains
is The Virtual Tour of New Netherland
* Fort Amsterdam
* Fort Nassau (North)
* Fort Orange
* Fort Nassau (South)
* Fort Goede Hoop
* De Wal
* Fort Casimir
* Fort Beversreede
* Fort Nya Korsholm
* Fort De Rondout
* Fort Ninigret
* Fort Pentagouet
* Fort Swaanendael
(subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James
(again), Fort William, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the
southern tip of Manhattan
Manhattan is one of the five borough of New York City, located primarily
on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River.With a United
States Census of 1,620,867 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles ,
Manhattan, coextensive with New York County, is the most population
density county in the United States, that was the administrative
headquarters for the Dutch and then British rule of New York from 1625
until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution
Dutch Rule (1625-1664)
The fort was the nucleus of the New Amsterdam settlement with a mission
of protecting New Netherland colony operations in the Hudson River
against attack from the English and the French.
Around 1620, the Dutch East India Company contacted the English
architect Inigo Jones asking him to design a fortification for the
harbor. Jones responded in a letter with a plan for a star-shaped
fortification made of stone and lime and surrounded by a moat and
defended with cannons. Jones advised the company against constructing a
timber fort out of haste.
The building of the fort commenced in 1625, under the direction of
Willem Verhulst, the second director of the New Netherland colony and
his chief engineer Cryn Fredericks. By the end of the year, Fredericksz
had surveyed the site. He returned to the Dutch Republic in November of
1626. At the time, Manhattan was only lightly settled, as most of the
Dutch West India Company operations were upriver along the Hudson in
order to conduct trading operation for beaver pelts.
Despite Jones' plea in his letter, the plan for the masonry
fortification was abandoned, however, out of the need for a hasty
completion. This was due primarily to:
• the looming threat from England and France, which were also conducting
beaver trade operations in North America. England, in particular, had
laid claim to the region as well.
• the growing threat of the Mohawk-Mahican War in the upper Hudson
Valley, which itself was partially the result of the fur trade
• the fact that the company was not turning a good profit, and thus the
cost of a masonry fort was deemed too high.
• the lack of labor and natural resources to construct a proper masonry
British Rule (1664-1673)
No shots were fired on August 27, 1664, when the Dutch surrendered the
fort and Manhattan in what amounted to one of the skirmishes in the
bigger Second Anglo-Dutch War. The fort was renamed Fort James in honor
of James II of England. New Amsterdam was renamed New York in
recognition of James title as Duke of York.
Dutch Rule (1673-1674)
In August 1673, the Dutch brought in a fleet of 21 ships and recaptured
Manhattan. The fort was renamed Fort Willem Hendrick in honor of the
Dutch leader who was Stadtholder and Prince of Orange. New York was
renamed New Orange. The Dutch attack was part of the bigger Third
Anglo-Dutch War. In 1674 the fort and New Orange was turned back over to
the British in the Treaty of Westminster (1674) which ended the war (the
Dutch got Suriname).
Fort Nassau 1617
Fort Nassau. 1 Built (1614) on Castle Island, in the Hudson River, S of
Albany, N.Y. The fort served as a trading post for the Dutch until 1617,
when it was destroyed by flood and replaced (1624) by Fort Orange, built
on the site of Albany. 2 Built (1623) by the Dutch on the eastern bank
of the Delaware River near Gloucester City, N.J. The Dutch soon
abandoned the fort, but after Swedish colonization in that area, the
Dutch reoccupied it. Fear of Swedish competition in the fur trade caused
Dutch Gov. Peter Stuyvesant to take over (1655) the Swedish forts on the
Delaware basin. After the Swedes evacuated Fort Elfsborg, the Dutch
destroyed Fort Nassau.
Fort Oranje 1617
Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch
settlement in New Netherland and was on the site of the present-day
city of Albany. It was a replacement for Fort Nassau, which had been
built on nearby Castle Island in the Hudson River and which served
as a trading post until 1617 or 1618, when it was abandoned due to
frequent flooding. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House
of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange was a small wooden structure, erected
in 1624 by the Dutch West India Company as a fur trading post on the
west bank of the Hudson River. It became the company's official
outpost in the upper Hudson Valley, similar to the company's many
other headquarters throughout their worldwide trading empire. In
1664, when the English took control of New Netherland, Fort Orange
was renamed Fort Albany. When the stockade was rebuilt on State
Street hill in 1676, it was renamed Fort Frederick. Fort Orange was
an entrepôt for beaver pelts and other goods. Fort Orange
Archeological Site was declared a National Historic Landmark in
Fort Nassau South -Fort Christina
-Fort Altena 1631
Fort Christina (later renamed Fort Altena) was the first Swedish
settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New
Sweden colony. Built in 1638 and named after Queen Christina of
Sweden, it was located approximately 1 mi (1.6 km) east of the
present downtown Wilmington, Delaware, at the confluence of the
Brandywine Creek and the Christina River, approximately 2 mi (3 km)
upstream from the mouth of the Christina on the Delaware River. It
was the first permanent European settlement in the Delaware Valley.
The Dutch, as part of the New Netherland colony, had previously
attempted a settlement along Delaware Bay at Zwaanendael (near
present-day Lewes) in 1631, but the colony had been massacred the
following year by Native Americans. Following plans by King Gustavus
Adolphus of Sweden to establish a Swedish colony in North America,
the Swedes arrived in Delaware Bay on March 29, 1638 aboard the
ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip under the command of Peter Minuit,
the former director general of the New Netherland colony. They
landed at a spot along the Christina River at the present site of
Old Swedes Church in Wilmington. Minuit selected the site on the
Christina River near the Delaware as being optimal for trade in
beaver pelts with the local Lenape.
At the time, the Dutch had claimed the area south to the Delaware
(then called "South River"). The Swedes claimed an area for the
Realm of Sweden on the south side of the Delaware that encompassed
much of the present-day U.S. state of Delaware, eventually including
parts of present-day southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New
Jersey on the north side of the river.
The colony remained in constant friction with the Dutch. In 1651,
the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant established Fort Casimir at
present-day New Castle, only 7 mi (12 km) south of Fort Christina,
in order to menace the Swedish settlement. In 1654, the Swedes
captured Fort Casimir, but the following year in 1655, the Dutch
took control of New Sweden, ending the official Swedish colonial
presence in North America and renaming the fort 'Fort Altena'. The
land remained as part of New Netherland until it became part of the
British Empire when an English fleet invaded the area in 1664.
The site was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961. It
is now preserved as Fort Christina State Park on E. 7th Street in
Wilmington, along with a replica of the Kalmar Nyckel. The Fort
Christina monument, designed by Swedish sculptor Carl Milles, stands
on the site.
Fort Hoop (Dutch: Fort Huys de Goede Hoop 1623
Fort Hoop (Dutch: Fort Huys de Goede Hoop; Algic: Suckiaug) was a
settlement in the seventeenth century colonial province of New
Netherland that eventually developed into Hartford, Connecticut.
In 1623, the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie (GWC), commonly
known in English as the Dutch West India Company 1621-1793 of the
United Netherlands Dutch Republic built a fortified trading house of
the Roman Castra design with a praetorium, castra ways, and gates.
Fort Hoop was located on the south bank of the Little River (now
Park River), a tributary river of the Versche or Fresh River (now
the Connecticut River). The directors at Fort Orange (now Albany)
and Fort Amsterdam (now New York City) had planned Fort Hoop to be
the northeastern fortification and trading center of the GWC. Peter
Minuit, Governor of the New Netherland, did not follow the line of
building fortifications as in Roman design, possibly out of haste &
lack of resources, poor leadership, or a combination of both.
The land on which Fort Huys de Goede Hoop was situate was part of
a larger tract purchased on June 8, 1633, by Jacob van Curler on
behalf of the company from the Sequins, one of the clans of
Connecticut Indians. Curler added a block house and palisade to
the post while New Amsterdam sent a small garrison and a pair of
cannons. Because of a perceived violation of an agreement, the Dutch
seized the principal Pequot sachem Tatobem. They paid the Dutch a
large ransom and received Tatobem's murdered body in return.
Tatobem's successor was Sassacus.
The fort was commended by 1654 by the settlers to New England.
English settlers from other New England colonies moved into the
Connecticut Valley in the 1630s. In 1633, William Holmes led a group
of settlers from Plymouth Colony to the Connecticut Valley, where
they established Windsor, a few miles north of the Dutch trading
post. In 1634, John Oldham and a handful of Massachusetts families
built temporary houses in the area of Wethersfield, a few miles
south of the Dutch outpost. In the next two years, thirty families
from Watertown, Massachusetts joined Oldham's followers at
Wethersfield. The English population of the area exploded in 1636
when clergyman Thomas Hooker led 100 settlers, including Richard
Risley, with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown (now
Cambridge) in the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the banks of the
Connecticut River, where they established Hartford directly across
the Park River from the old Dutch fort. In 1637, the three
Connecticut River towns -- Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield --
set up a collective government in order to fight the Pequot War.
The location of this confluence of rivers is at contemporary
Sheldon Street in Hartford. The fort is recalled today with a nearby
avenue called Huyshope
Fort De Wal 1652
In July of 1652, war broke out between England and the
Netherlands. As battle commenced in Europe and on the high seas, it
also affected relations between the two nations’ respective North
American colonies. Many New Englanders thought the time was right to
overrun the Dutch colony to the south. In New Amsterdam, meanwhile,
Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, hunkered down within the walls
of Fort Amsterdam, read dispatches from his superiors in the
Netherlands telling him of recent events and instructing him to
prepare for the worst.
It happened that the citizens of New Amsterdam had finally won
from Stuyvesant and the government in the Netherlands a city
charter. At last, after thirty years, New Amsterdam was a true city.
As such, its first municipal governing body—the burgomasters and
schepens—sat in February 1653. A few weeks later, on March 13,
Stuyvesant called an extraordinary meeting consisting of his own
council as well as the burgomasters and schepens—in effect, every
political representative in the city and surrounding areas. The
matter was simple: the English to their north were strong, and the
Dutch defenses were weak. How could they protect themselves in the
event of an invasion?
They quickly agreed to repair the fort, and to begin
round-the-clock guards. But this wasn’t enough to ensure defense.
They decided they needed to wall themselves in. The city was
clustered at the southern tip of the island, and they decided that
they would create a wall across the northern reaches of town. Thomas
Baxter was charged with the task of producing logs for palisades.
They were to be twelve feet high and eighteen inches thick. The wall
would stretch from the East River straight across to the North (or
Hudson) River. There would be a gate at de Heere Straat (later,
Fort Wilhelmus 1625
Fort Wilhelmus was a fort in the 17th century colonial province of
New Netherland, located on what had been named Verhulsten Island on
the Zuyd Rivier, today's Delaware River. More a trading post more
military installation, it was built in 1625 by colonialists from The
Netherlands in the employ of the Dutch West India Company, with the
intention of establishing a physical claim to the new territory and
to engage in the fur trade with the indigenous population of Lenape
and Minqua. The Walloon families had originally arrived at Noten
Island (Governors Island) across from Fort Amsterdam in the Upper
New York Bay, They had been sent south in order to begin the
population of the province of New Netherland. They were later
recalled back to New Amsterdam since the Dutch West India Company
had decided to concentrate their settlement efforts along the North
River, or Hudson River The fort was likely so called from Het
Wilhelmus (Nl-Het Wilhelmus2.ogg pronunciation (help·info)) (English
translation: The William), a song which tells of Willem van Oranje,
his life and why he is fighting for the Dutch people. It became, in
1932, the national anthem of the Netherlands and is the oldest
national anthem in the world Although it was not recognized as the
official national anthem until 1932, it remained popular with the
Dutch people since its creation.
Fort Beversreede 1648
Fort Beversreede (1648 - 1650 or 1651) was a Dutch-built palisaded
log fort in New Netherland located along the eastern-side of the
Schuylkill River in the Passyunk section of what is now
A possible translation of Beversreede could be Beavers Gap, from
bever or beaver and reet meaning opening or cleft, which would speak
to the location of the fort.
Though never recognized by the Dutch, the region along the
southern Delaware River was effectively under control of New Sweden
which was first settled in 1638.
The fort was abandoned after being vandalized by Swedish settlers
several times. The Swedes had built the stockaded 30-by-20-foot Fort
New Korsholm directly in front of the Dutch fort in 1648 to
intimidate its residents. It was not until 1655 that control of the
area was regained in a military expedition led by Director-General
of New Netherland Petrus Stuyvesant.
Fort Casimir 1651
Fort Casimir was a Dutch settlement in 17th century colonial
province of New Netherland. It was located on the no-longer existing
Sand Hook at the end of Chestnut Street in what is now New Castle,
Delaware. The fort was possibly named for Ernst Casimir of
Nassau-Dietz or his successor, Henry Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz, both
counts of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholders of Friesland, Groningen and
Drenthe in the Netherlands.
Fort Casimir was established in 1651, the structure that had been
Fort Nassau having been dismantled and relocated. It was briefly
known as Fort Trefaldigheets, and later became New Amstel, and
eventually New Castle
On Trinity Sunday in 1654, Johan Risingh, Commissary and
Councilor to New Sweden Governor Lt. Col. Johan Printz, officially
assumed his duties and began to extricate all Dutch from the
Deleware River. Fort Casimir surrendered and was renamed Fort
Trinity (in Swedish Fort Trefaldigheten). The Swedes were now in
complete possession of their colony. On June 21, 1654, the Indians
met with the Swedes to reaffirm their ownership.
Peter Stuyvesant led a Dutch force which retook the fort on
September 11, 1655, renaming it New Amstel (in Dutch Nieuw Amstel).
Subsequently, Fort Christina also fell on September 15th and all New
Sweden came under the control of the Dutch. John Paul Jacquet was
immediately appointed Governor, making New Amstel the capital of the
In 1664, Stuyvesant peacefully surrendered control of Fort
Amsterdam, and thereby, all of New Netherland to the British. They
gave the settlement yet another name, New Castle.
Fort Nya Korsholm-Fort
With the Dutch focusing their attention on the central part of their
North American territory-the Hudson River-the Swedes made a surprise
incursion into New Netherland in 1638, when they established their
shortlived colony of New Sweden along the banks of the South
(Delaware) River. This set off a military chess match between the
two nations over control of the region, with each side attempting to
outflank the other. The prize was the fur trade with the Indians of
the Delaware region. The Dutch erected Fort Nassau on the Delaware
River, near the confluence of the Schuylkill, at the site of
present-day Gloucester, New Jersey, as a trading and military base.
The Swedes, under the wily commander Johan Printz, countered this by
building their post, Fort Elfsborg, further downriver, so that Dutch
ships coming up from the bay would have to get by them first. The
Dutch were enraged by this act of Printz's, reporting that "He
closes the entrance of the River so that all vessels…are compelled
to cast anchor…to obtain his consent…"
But Fort Elfsborg-near the present city of Salem, New Jersey, was
no nirvana. That area of the river was mostly swamp, and the
soldiers garrisoned there were inundated by mosquitos, so much so,
wrote a commander, that "From the continued stinging and sucking of
the mosquitos the people were so swollen, that they appeared as if
they had been affected with some horrible disease." "Fort
Myggenborgh" (Fort Mosquito), as it was not-so-affectionately
nicknamed, was eventually abandoned, the soldiers succumbing not to
enemy cannonfire but bites.
Fort Ronduyt 1666
Rondout (pronounced "ron doubt", often mis-pronounced "ROUND OUT")
was a village located on the north side of Rondout Creek near its
mouth on the Hudson River in Ulster County and includes the Rondout-West
Strand Historic District.
The name of the Rondout Creek comes from the fort, or redoubt,
that was erected near its mouth. The Dutch equivalent of the English
word redoubt (meaning a fort or stronghold), is reduyt. In the Dutch
records of Wildwyck, however, the spelling used to designate this
same fort is invariably Ronduyt during the earliest period, with the
present form rondout (often capitalized) appearing as early as
November 22, 1666.
The Dutch word ronduyt is an adjective meaning "frankly" or
"positively." The word could also be broken down into its components
and translated, literally, "round-out." Most likely, this corrupting
process merely represented the simplification of a word (reduyt).
Incorporated on April 4, 1849, Rondout served as a Hudson River
port for the city of Kingston located about a mile distant. In 1828
it became the eastern terminus of the Delaware and Hudson Canal.
From that time, it grew rapidly, until in 1872 it was merged with
and became a part of the city of Kingston.
Prior to its incorporation, Rondout was known variously as "The
Strand", "Kingston Landing" and "Bolton". "The Strand" is a Dutch
derived reference to the beach once located on the north shore of
the Rondout Creek. Its usage persists to the present (2006).
"Kingston Landing" speaks for itself. "Bolton" was used to honor a
president of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company.
Much of the former village's central area has survived intact and
is part of the Rondout-West Strand Historic District, which was
added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
The Rondout borders the Rondout creek. The creek empties into the
Hudson through a large, protected tidal area which was the terminus
of the Delaware & Hudson canal built to haul coal from Pennsylvania
to New York City.
Fort Ninigret 1637
Fort Ninigret is an historic fort or
trading post site at Fort Neck Road in Charlestown, Rhode Island
purportedly built and occupied by either Native Americans or early
European settlers in the seventeenth century.
Archaeological excavations have shown that people lived on Fort
Neck long before the Europeans arrived, although this was never a
large village. But around 1620, many
Niantic people (cousins and allies of the larger
Narragansett Tribe) settled at this place—growing corn, making
(shell beads used as money by the Europeans), and trading with the
Europeans for such things as beads, pipes, and copper kettles. By
the 1630s, the Niantics had a young and powerful sachem—Ninigret,
for whom the fort was later named.
Some historians have alleged that the fort was built by the
Dutch West India Company or by
Portuguese explorers prior to 1637 (in addition to the earlier
trading post on nearby
Dutch Island). One of the first printed references to Dutch
forts in Rhode Island was Samuel Arnold's 1858 "History of the State
of Rhode Island." According to historian Manuel da Silva:
"The fort is rectangular with the corners terminating in
five-sided bastions, except for the one facing the water. It
measures 152 feet long (from bastion to bastion) and 137 feet
wide. The angles of the bastions are approximately 130 degrees.
No one doubts that the style in which the fort is built clearly
shows the influence of European civilization."
In 1921-22 a European sword, cannnon and four skeletons were
found near the site, allegedly lending credence to the theory that
this was a European fort or a trading post used by Native Americans
for trading with Europeans. The artifacts are now in the possession
Rhode Island Historical Society.
King Philip’s War (1675-76) cemented English rule over most of
the Indian lands of Rhode Island, but a reservation encompassing
much of today’s Charlestown was set aside for the tribe. Many
Narragansetts had joined Ninigret’s people for safety, and soon the
name Niantic fell out of use. Here at Fort Ninigret, tribal members
wigwams into the 18th century. Nearby stood the European style
house of the sachems, who sold off tribal property to Englishmen to
pay their debts. By the 19th century Fort Neck was the last piece of
land held in common by the Narragansett Tribe that had access to
In the 1880s, the state declared the Narragansett Tribe extinct.
As part of this detribalization, the state transformed the remains
of Fort Ninigret into a monument to the now ‘vanished’ tribe. They
planted trees, reshaped the earthen banks of the fort, and put up
the iron fence, and in the middle of the fort they set a boulder,
inscribed with these words:
Memorial to the Niantics and Narragansetts Unwavering friends and
allies of our forefathers.
Ironically, a member of the Tribe spoke at the monument’s
dedication. In 1983 the Federal Government acknowledged that the
Narragansetts were still alive and well in Rhode Island, and they
were once again recognized as a tribe. Today Fort Ninigret is
maintained by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management and the Charlestown Historical Society.
Fort Ninigret was added to the
National Register of Historic Places in 1970. During the 1970s,
archaeological excavations were conducted at Fort Ninigret by the
Rhode Island Historical Preservation Commission and by
archaeologists from New York University.
Fort Pentagouet 1674
Fort Pentagouet was a French constructed fort from the early times
of Acadia. The French were expanding their activities into the
Penobscot area which was a rich fur trading area. The fort was
situated near present day Castine, Maine, and represented the
western boundary of Acadia.
Construction was undertaken over a period of time after 1613 by
Claude de Saint-Étienne de la Tour with probable assistance from his
son, Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour. The fort was a combined
fortified trading post and fishing station. The location is often
described as the first permanent settlement in New England.
About 1626, the French were routed on behalf of the Plymouth
Colonists and possession remained in British hands until 1635,
although control of the area had formally been given back to France
by treaty, and more specifically to the control of the Compagnie des
Cent-Associés, in 1630. In 1635, Acadian governor, Isaac de Razilly
sent Charles de Menou d'Aulnay to re-establish French control.
Some details about ensuing years are well documented. On
September 2, 1654, British colonial troops under Robert Sedgwick
drove the French out and sacked the fort. The Treaty of Breda in
1667, returned Acadian territory to the French but because the
settlements were not specified, Pentagouet was finally under French
rule again on 17 July 1670. We also know that In 1671, the Intendant
of New France, Jean Talon, sent Hugues Randin to the western
boundary of Acadia do a condition report on the fort.
The fort was captured by Dutch navy captain Jurriaen Aernoutsz in
1674 during the Franco-Dutch War. Aernoutsz also captured Fort
Jemseg, and claimed Acadia as the Dutch colony of New Holland.
However, once Aernoutsz himself left Acadia in search of new Dutch
settlers, administrator John Rhoades was unable to maintain control
of Acadia, which quickly reverted back to France after Rhoades was
captured by the English. The Netherlands continued to claim
sovereignty over the region on paper, appointing Cornelius Van
Steenwyk as governor in 1676. Steenwyk sent a Dutch expedition to
reclaim Pentagouet, although this attempt was rebuffed by three
British warships from Boston. The Dutch colonial claim over Acadia
was surrendered in 1678 by the Treaties of Nijmegen.
Fort Swaanendael 1630
Zwaanendael or Swaanendael was a Dutch colonial settlement in
Delaware. It was built in 1631. The name is archaic Dutch spelling
for "swan valley". The site of the settlement later became the town
of Lewes, Delaware.
Two directors of the Amsterdam chamber of the Dutch West India
Company, Samuel Blommaert and Samuel Godyn, bargained with the
natives for a tract of land reaching from Cape Henlopen to the mouth
of Delaware river. This was in 1629, three years before the charter
of Maryland, and is the oldest deed for land in Delaware. Its
water-front nearly coincides with the coast of Kent and Sussex
Counties.. The purchase was ratified in 1630 by Peter Minuit and his
council at Fort Amsterdam.
A company including, besides the two original proprietors,
Kiliaen van Rensselaer, De Laet, the historian, and David Pietersen
de Vries was formed to colonize the tract. A ship of eighteen guns
was fitted out to bring over the colonists and subsequently defend
the coast, with incidental whaling to help defray expenses. A colony
of more than thirty people was planted on Lewes creek, a little
north of Cape Henlopen, and its governorship was entrusted to Gillis
Hosset. This settlement antedated by several years any in
Pennsylvania, and the colony at Lewes practically laid the
foundation and defined the singularly limited area of the state of
Delaware, the major part of which was included in the purchase. A
palisaded fort was built, with the "red lion, rampant," of Holland
affixed to its gate, and the country was named Swaanendael or
Zwaanendael Colony, while the water was called Godyn's bay. The
estate was further extended, on May 5, 1630, by the purchase of a
tract twelve miles square on the coast of Cape May opposite, and the
transaction was duly attested at Fort Amsterdam.
The existence of the little colony was short, for the Indians
came down upon it in revenge for an arbitrary act on the part of
Hosset, and it was destroyed, with no Dutch escaping to tell the
tale. The details of the attack were recounted to Dutch observers by
"He then showed us the place where our people had set up a column
to which was fastened a piece of tin, whereon the arms of Holland
were painted. One of their chiefs took this off, for the purpose of
making tobacco-pipes, not knowing that he was doing amiss. Those in
command at the house made such an ado about it that the Indians, not
knowing how it was, went away and slew the chief who had done it,
and brought a token of the dead to the house to those in command,
who told them that they wished that they had not done it; that they
should have brought him to them, as they wished to have forbidden
him not to do the like again. They went away, and the friends of the
murdered chief incited their friends, as they are a people like the
Indians, who are very revengeful, to set about the work of
vengeance. Observing our people out of the house, each one at his
work, that there was not more than one inside, who was lying sick,
and a large mastiff, who was chained, - had he been loose they would
not have dared to approach the house, - and the man who had command
standing near the house, three of the stoutest Indians, who were to
do the deed, bringing a lot of bear-skins with them to exchange,
sought to enter the house. The man in charge went in with them to
make the barter, which being done, he went to the loft where the
stores lay, and in descending the stairs one of the Indians seized
an axe and cleft his head so that he fell down dead. They also
relieved the sick man of life, and shot into the dog, who was
chained fast, and whom they most feared, twenty-five arrows before
they could dispatch him. They then proceeded towards the rest of the
men, who were at work, and, going amongst them with pretensions of
friendship, struck them down. Thus was our young colony destroyed,
causing us serious loss."
In 1633, de Vries negotiated a treaty with the Indians and sailed
up the Delaware River, attempting to trade for beans and corn.
Failing his objective there, de Vries sailed to Virginia, where was
successful in obtaining provisions for the colonists in Zwaanendael,
to which he returned. He subsequently took the colonists to New
York and then back to Europe.
According to acknowledged precedent, occupancy of the wilderness
served to perfect title ; but before the Dutch could reoccupy the
desolated site at Lewes, the English were practically in possession.
Later Blommaert assisted with the fitting out of the first
Swedish expedition to New Sweden in 1637 and engaged Peter Minuit to
Franciscus van den Enden had drawn up charter for a utopian
society (that included equal education of all classes, joint
owership of property, and a democratically elected government. .
Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy attempted such a settlement near the
site of Zwaanendael, but it soon expired under English rule.